Calakmul is an almost extinct Mayan city. Archaeological excavation area is in Cempeche. Calakmul was discovered in 1931 and in the following years some excavations was made. Sylvanus Morley from Carnegie Institute of Washington studied in Calakmul until 1938. But excavations and discovery studies in the city paused for a long time. Then, studies started again in 1980s. William J. Folan from University of Campeche managed studies from 1982 to 1994.
In 1994 Institute of National Anthropology and History took studies over and they still continue. While Cyrus Lundell (an American botanist) was studying in Cempeche forests, he encountered the ruins of a Mayan city in 1931. He uncovered sixteen Mayan ruins. Lundell called the city Calakmul whose meaning is “ the city of two united stone-pyramids”. Then, archaeologist have learnt the real name of the city is “Ox Te’ Tuun”.
Calakmul people lived here between the years 600 BC and 900 AC. They completed the constructions of most of the buildings in 240 AC. The city experienced the golden era in the 6th century AC. The welfare period lasted till 9th century AC and the population was about 50 thousand in this period. Calakmul had control over other people living around. So, it affected lives of 1,5 million people.
The biggest opponent of Calakmul was Tikal, another Mayan city which was located in Guatemala (If you want to learn more about Tikal, please click here.). Other Mayan cities like Yaxchilan and Naranjo also knew Calakmul. Archaeologists think that Calakmul allied with these two cities to overthrow Tikal in 6th cantury AC. The struggle of Calakmul brought to a successful conclusion. Calakmul conquered Tikal in 562 AC.
In the early 9th century, the records of Calakmul suddenly stopped. Archaeologists have learnt from the reliefs of Seibal which was another Mayan city that Calakmul was under occupation till the mid 9th century AC. Thank you for reading.